2017 - Kappenman & Radasky - Examination of NERC GMD Standards and Validation of Ground Models and Geo-Electric Fields
This analysis of the U.S. electric power grid vulnerability to geomagnetic storms was originally conducted as part of the work performed by Metatech Corporation for the Congressional appointed U.S. EMP Commission, which started their investigations in late 2001. Subsequent work performed for the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) was released in a detailed report in 2010, entitled, “Geomagnetic Storms and Their Impacts on the U.S. Power Grid,” by J.G. Kappenman. In that report, models to calculate the geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in high voltage power grids from geomagnetic storms were developed and validated—using data from previous storms—to ensure their accuracy. In October 2012, the FERC ordered the U.S. electric power industry via their standards development organization, North American Reliability Corporation (NERC), to develop new standards addressing the impacts of a geomagnetic disturbance to the bulk electric power grid. While the standard was in draft, Kappenman and Radasky assessed the work performed by NERC to develop the standard including the specification of geo-electric fields. This staff paper is the result of that assessment. The draft standard was approved by FERC in September 2016 as Reliability Standard-TPL-007-1: Transmission System Planned Performance for Geomagnetic Disturbance (GMD) Events.